Multimedia: Charts

Private and Social Costs of Electricity Generation by Source

Any replication of this chart should be credited to The Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution.

Private and Social Costs of Electricity Generation by Source

This chart provides the best available estimates of the complete costs of electricity production for several different energy producing technologies, including coal, natural gas, nuclear, and wind. The dramatic differences in the private and social costs of different energy sources illustrate how the low private cost energy sources we rely on often come with high social costs — usually in the form of negative health effects such as respiratory disease, increased infant mortality, or reduced life expectancy. When full costs for each source are calculated, the cost of electricity generation from coal become a full 170 percent higher,  jumping from 3.2 cents to 8.8 cents.


Recent Charts

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Evolution of the Jobs Gap and Possible Scenarios for Growth

April 3, 2015 • Charts

Each month, The Hamilton Project calculates America’s “jobs gap,” or the number of jobs that the U.S. economy needs to create in order to return to pre-recession employment levels while absorbing the people who newly enter the labor force each month. As of the end of March 2015, our nation faces a jobs gap of 4.0 million jobs.

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Share of Workforce Licensed, by State

March 9, 2015 • Charts

A substantial share of American workers must obtain a license from a state or local government to work in their professions. The share of workers nationwide required to have a license has risen dramatically since the 1950s, from just 5 percent to nearly 30 percent in 2008. This chart shows the share of the workforce that is licensed in every state based on estimates from a Harris poll conducted in the first half of 2013.

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Jobs Gap from the Past Four Recessions, by Month Since Recession Started

March 6, 2015 • Charts

Each month, The Hamilton Project calculates America’s “jobs gap,” or the number of jobs that the U.S. economy needs to create in order to return to pre-recession employment levels while accounting for changes in the population. In this chart, The Hamilton Project applies the same jobs gap methodology to earlier recessions in 1981–82, 1990–91, 2001, and 2007–09.

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Median Initial Earnings Growth in Early Career, by Major

November 20, 2014 • Charts

Graduates of majors with initially low earnings experience faster earnings growth during the early-career years.

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Average Monthly Water Bill in Large U.S. Cities, 2010

October 20, 2014 • Charts

The price that households pay for water is highly variable across cities, even when controlling for the volume of water that different households use.

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Domestic Water Use per Capita (in gallons per day) by State, 2005

October 20, 2014 • Charts

There is considerable regional variation in per capita domestic water use, which includes indoor uses (e.g., drinking, flushing toilets, preparing food, showering, and washing clothes and dishes) as well as outdoor uses (e.g., watering lawns and gardens and washing cars).

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Freshwater Use in California by Sector and Crop, 2006-10

October 20, 2014 • Charts

Almost 40 percent of California's freshwater withdrawals are used for the production of fruits, nuts, and alfalfa.

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Average Precipitation and Projected Percent Change in Population, by Census Division

October 20, 2014 • Charts

The fastest growing area of the country receives the least precipitation.

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Comparison of U.S. Patents Filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty for Clean Energy and Water Purification, 1999-2011

October 20, 2014 • Charts

Solutions to the country’s growing water challenges lie, in part, with the development and adoption of new innovative technologies. Yet, in comparison to the clean energy sector, innovation in the water sector has remained low. Using the numbers of patents filed in clean energy and water purification as indicators, the clean energy sector has exhibited a much higher rate of innovation over the past decade.

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Economic Contributions of the U.S. Fishing Industry, 2012

September 10, 2014 • Charts

The U.S. fishing industry contributed approximately $90 billion to the economy in 2012. This contribution is split between commercial and recreational fishing—$59.0 billion and $30.4 billion, respectively.

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